Physics

Articles from General Physics News Phys.org

Deep neural networks help to identify the neutrinoless double beta decay signal

A group of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Peking University greatly improved the discrimination power of tracks from different particles passing through the gaseous detector with the help of deep convolutional neural networks. The work will help to improve the sensitivity of detection for the PandaX-III neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, and deepen our knowledge of the nature of neutrinos.

Perovskite semiconductors seeing right through next generation X-ray detectors

From observing celestial objects to medical imaging, the sensitive detection of X-rays plays a central role in countless applications. However, the methods used to detect them have undergone an interesting evolution of their own.

New observations to understand the phase transition in quantum chromodynamics

The building blocks of matter in our universe were formed in the first 10 microseconds of its existence, according to the currently accepted scientific picture. After the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago, matter consisted mainly of quarks and gluons, two types of elementary particles whose interactions are governed by quantum chromodynamics (QCD), the theory of strong interaction. In the early universe, these particles moved nearly freely in a quark-gluon plasma.

Neutrons produce first direct 3-D maps of water during cell membrane fusion

New 3-D maps of water distribution during cellular membrane fusion are accelerating scientific understanding of cell development, which could lead to new treatments for diseases associated with cell fusion. Using neutron diffraction at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, researchers have made the first direct observations of water in lipid bilayers used to model cell membrane fusion.

Researchers determine absolute duration of photoelectric effect for the first time

The photoelectric effect provides the basis for solar energy and global communications; Albert Einstein described it over a century ago. For the first time, scientists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM), the Max-Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ), and the TU Wien have now measured the absolute duration of the light absorption and of the resulting photoelectron released from a solid body.

Researchers decipher the dynamics of electrons in perovskite crystals

Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. They have thus found the key to an important characteristic of these crystals, which could play an important role in the development of new solar cells. The results have now been published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

The hunt for leptoquarks is on

Matter is made of elementary particles, and the Standard Model of particle physics states that these particles occur in two families: leptons (such as electrons and neutrinos) and quarks (which make up protons and neutrons). Under the Standard Model, these two families are totally distinct, with different electric charges and quantum numbers, but have the same number of generations (see image below).

Airbnb distribution may depend on who lives there, not just distance to city center

Distribution of Airbnbs may follow the same pattern across different cities, and several factors, including the number of residents who work in the creative industries, may determine their location, according to an article published in EPJ Data Science.

First particle tracks seen in prototype for international neutrino experiment

The largest liquid-argon neutrino detector in the world has just recorded its first particle tracks, signaling the start of a new chapter in the story of the international Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).

Simulation shows nuclear pasta 10 billion times harder to break than steel

A trio of researchers affiliated with several institutions in the U.S. and Canada has found evidence that suggests nuclear material beneath the surface of neutron stars may be the strongest material in the universe. In their paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters, M. E. Caplan, A. S. Schneider, and C. J. Horowitz describe their neutron star simulation and what it showed.

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