Physics

A sharper focus: New computational technique resolves compressed X-ray data

With high-energy X-rays, such as those that will be produced by the upgrade to Argonne's Advanced Photon Source comes a potential hitch -- the more penetrating the X-rays are, the higher a likelihood that researchers could run into problems with the image data. In a new study, researchers have found a novel way to combat this image degradation.

Simulations fix the cracks in magnetic mirrors

Physicists show that 'magnetic mirrors' plasma leaks can be minimized if specific conditions are met. The insights gathered could solve a decades-old problem of low plasma confinement times and high loss rates in magnetic mirrors.

Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum chromodynamics simulations

A study describes a new technique for simulating particle ensembles that are 'large' (at least by the standards of particle physics). The technique improves the signal-to-noise ratio and thus the precision of the simulation; crucially, it can also be used to model ensembles of baryons: a category of elementary particles that includes the protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei.

A graphene superconductor that plays more than one tune

Researchers have developed a graphene device that's thinner than a human hair but has a depth of special traits. It easily switches from a superconducting material that conducts electricity without losing any energy, to an insulator that resists the flow of electric current, and back again to a superconductor -- all with a simple flip of a switch.

First-ever visualizations of electrical gating effects on electronic structure

Scientists have visualized the electronic structure in a microelectronic device for the first time, opening up opportunities for finely-tuned high performance electronic devices.

200 times faster than ever before: The speediest quantum operation yet

A group of physicists at UNSW Sydney have built a super-fast version of the central building block of a quantum computer. The research is the milestone result of a vision first outlined by scientists 20 years ago.

Highly anticipated nuclear experiment underway

Neutron stars were recently in the news because the gravitational wave observatory, LIGO, detected a neutron star merger. Neutron stars are very interesting objects. A teaspoon of neutron star matter is so dense it would weigh about 10 million tons! The remnants of supernovae explosions, neutron stars tell us about the origin of matter in our universe. Our understanding of neutron stars depends on detailed calculations of nuclear structure. A professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dr. Samar Safi-Harb, does astrophysical observations of supernovae remnants.

New spin on molecular oxygen

Reactive molecular oxygen singlets have a multitude of uses in chemistry and medicine, but they are less abundant than non-reactive oxygen triplets. A multinational research team has developed a novel method of producing reactive molecular oxygen through controlled, reversible bond formation between two oxygen atoms using atomic force microscopy. In addition, the researchers could alter the charge of individual oxygen atoms, presumably changing oxygen spin in the process.

Bottomonium particles don't go with the flow

A few millionths of a second after the Big Bang, the universe was so dense and hot that the quarks and gluons that make up protons, neutrons and other hadrons existed freely in what is known as the quark–gluon plasma. The ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can recreate this plasma in high-energy collisions of beams of heavy ions of lead. However, ALICE, as well as any other collision experiments that can recreate the plasma, cannot observe this state of matter directly.

Scientists piece together the largest U.S.-based dark matter experiment

Most of the remaining components needed to fully assemble an underground dark matter-search experiment called LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) arrived at the project's South Dakota home during a rush of deliveries in June.

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