Physics

Fundamental study on the Kondo effect

In 1998, spectroscopic studies on the Kondo effect using scanning tunnelling microscopy were published, which are considered ground-breaking and have triggered countless others of a similar kind. Many of these studies may have to be re-examined now that researchers have shown that the Kondo effect cannot be proven beyond doubt by this method. Instead, another phenomenon is creating precisely the spectroscopic 'fingerprint' that was previously attributed to the Kondo effect.

Machine-learning models of matter beyond interatomic potentials

Combining electronic structure calculations and machine learning (ML) techniques has become a common approach in the atomistic modeling of matter. Using the two techniques together has allowed researchers, for instance, to create models that use atomic coordinates as the only inputs to inexpensively predict any property that can be computed by the first-principles calculations that had been used to train them.

New hard disk write head analytical technology can increase hard disk capacities

Using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8—a large-scale synchrotron radiation facility—Tohoku University, Toshiba Corporation, and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI) have successfully imaged the magnetization dynamics of a hard disk drive (HDD) write head for the first time, with a precision of one ten-billionth of a second. The method makes possible precise analysis of write head operations, accelerating the development of the next-generation write heads and further increasing HDD capacity.

The first evidence of top quark production in nucleus-nucleus collisions

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Collaboration, a large group of researchers from different institutes worldwide, has recently gathered the very first evidence of top quark production in nucleus-nucleus collisions. Their work, outlined in a paper published in Physical Review Letters, was based on lead-lead collision data gathered by the CMS particle detector, at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

Next-generation particle beam cooling experiment under way at Fermilab accelerator

Before researchers can smash together beams of particles to study high-energy particle interactions, they need to create those beams in particle accelerators. And the tighter the particles are packed in the beams, the better scientists' chances of spotting rare physics phenomena.

How chaos and tendency to reach thermal equilibrium arise from fundamental laws of physics

Normally the word "chaos" evokes a lack of order: a hectic day, a teenager's bedroom, tax season. And the physical understanding of chaos is not far off. It's something that is extremely difficult to predict, like the weather. Chaos allows a small blip (the flutter of a butterfly wing) to grow into a big consequence (a typhoon halfway across the world), which explains why weather forecasts more than a few days into the future can be unreliable.

Insights through atomic simulation

A recent special issue of the Journal of Chemical Physics highlights Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) contributions to developing two prominent open-source software packages for computational chemistry used by scientists around the world.

Researchers develop broadband X-ray source needed to perform new measurements at NIF

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers have developed an X-ray source that can diagnose temperature in experiments that probe conditions like those at the very center of planets.

Physicists observe competition between magnetic orders

They are as thin as a hair, only a hundred thousand times thinner—so-called two-dimensional materials, consisting of a single layer of atoms, have been booming in research for years. They became known to a wider audience when two Russian-British scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2010 for the discovery of graphene, a building block of graphite. The special feature of such materials is that they possess novel properties that can only be explained with the help of the laws of quantum mechanics and that may be relevant for enhanced technologies.

Physicists observe competition between magnetic orders

Two-dimensional materials, consisting of a single layer of atoms, have been booming in research for years. They possess novel properties that can only be explained with the help of the laws of quantum mechanics. Researchers have now used ultracold atoms to gain new insights into previously unknown quantum phenomena. They found out that the magnetic orders between two coupled thin films of atoms compete with each other.

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