Physics

New mechanism moving droplets at record-high speed and long distance without extra power

Transporting droplets on solid surfaces at high speed and long distances without additional force, even against gravity, is a formidable task. But a research team comprising scientists from City University of Hong Kong (CityU) and three other universities and research institutes has recently devised a novel mechanism to transport droplets at record-high velocity and distance without extra energy input, and droplets can be moved upward along a vertical surface, which has never been achieved before.

Atomically precise models improve understanding of fuel cells

Simulations from researchers in Japan provide new insights into the reactions occurring in solid-oxide fuel cells by using realistic atomic-scale models of the electrode active site based on microscope observations instead of the simplified and idealized atomic structures employed in previous studies. This better understanding of how the structures in the cells affect the reactions could give clues on ways to improve performance and durability in future devices.

Toward molecular computers: First measurement of single-molecule heat transfer

Heat transfer through a single molecule has been measured for the first time by an international team of researchers.

New laws of attraction: Scientists print magnetic liquid droplets

Inventors of centuries past and scientists of today have found ingenious ways to make our lives better with magnets—from the magnetic needle on a compass to magnetic data storage devices and even MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) body scan machines.

Simulations fix the cracks in magnetic mirrors

When ring-shaped electromagnets are set up in linear arrangements, they can produce magnetic fields resembling a tube with a cone at each end—a structure that repels charged particles entering one cone back along their path of approach. Referred to as 'magnetic mirrors', these devices have been known to be a relatively easy way to confine plasma since the 1950s, but they have also proven to be inherently leaky.

Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum chromodynamics simulations

Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. If you increase the number of lattice points in a simulation, it becomes harder to tell the difference between the observed result of the simulation and the surrounding noise.

A sharper focus: New computational technique resolves compressed X-ray data

With high-energy X-rays, such as those that will be produced by the upgrade to Argonne's Advanced Photon Source comes a potential hitch -- the more penetrating the X-rays are, the higher a likelihood that researchers could run into problems with the image data. In a new study, researchers have found a novel way to combat this image degradation.

Simulations fix the cracks in magnetic mirrors

Physicists show that 'magnetic mirrors' plasma leaks can be minimized if specific conditions are met. The insights gathered could solve a decades-old problem of low plasma confinement times and high loss rates in magnetic mirrors.

Improving the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum chromodynamics simulations

A study describes a new technique for simulating particle ensembles that are 'large' (at least by the standards of particle physics). The technique improves the signal-to-noise ratio and thus the precision of the simulation; crucially, it can also be used to model ensembles of baryons: a category of elementary particles that includes the protons and neutrons that make up atomic nuclei.

A graphene superconductor that plays more than one tune

Researchers have developed a graphene device that's thinner than a human hair but has a depth of special traits. It easily switches from a superconducting material that conducts electricity without losing any energy, to an insulator that resists the flow of electric current, and back again to a superconductor -- all with a simple flip of a switch.

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